Odin is a deity appearing in Dungeons & Dragons. He is the chief god of the Norse pantheon.[1]

Description[edit | edit source]

Appearance[edit | edit source]

Odin appears as a grey-haired man, seeming around fifty years of age, with a missing eye covered with a patch.[2] His remaining eye blazes like the sun.[1] He is often accompanied by two ravens, Hugin and Munin, who rest upon his shoulders, and his wolves, Freke and Gere.

In his travels through the human realm of Midgard, Odin disguises himself as an ordinary mortal wanderer, wearing a tattered wide-brimmed hat which casts a shadow over his face.[1]

Odin favors dark clothing, especially grey, and often wears an eyepatch over his missing eye. He appears with a grey beard, broad shoulders, and a hunched back. He leans on a wooden staff as he walks. By some accounts, this staff is the same object as Odin's spear Gungnir.[3]

Personality and alignment[edit | edit source]

Odin is revered for his great wisdom, knowledge, and cunning. His dedication to the acquisition of magic is severe. Odin once hung himself from the World Tree Yggdrasil for nine nights in order to receive the knowledge of the runes of magic.

By custom, Odin cannot slay the direct offspring of gods.[4] However, he has on at least one occasion slain his own distant mortal descendants on the battlefield.

Odin is heroic, proud, and stern, resembling a great Norse chieftain. He is obsessed with the acquisition of power,[2] always planning to amass forces for the prophecied battle of Ragnarok. He has a reputation of short temper when he is crossed, and lesser gods of the Norse pantheon often command respect among more powerful deities for fear of offending Odin.[5] Odin does not appreciate being spied upon, and will summon beings into his presence who scry upon him for too long.[6]

Odin is Neutral Good in alignment,[1][7] though by some accounts he is Chaotic Good.[2]

Titles and aliases[edit | edit source]

Odin is an ancient deity with many titles reflecting his past. He is called the All-Father, Father of the Slain, God of the Hanged, God of Prisoners, God of Cargoes, the High One, the Inflamer, Swift Tricker, Father of Victory, the Blind One, Shifty-Eyed, One with a Magic Staff, Destroyer, and Terror.[1]

Odin has assumed many false names on his travels, often descriptive of his appearance or personality in the languages of the lands he travels. Among his many names are Allfod, "All-Father"; Baleyg, "Flame-eyed One"; Biflindi, "Spear Shaker"; Bileyg, "One-Eyed"; Bolverk, "Worker of Evil"; Farmagud and Farmatyr, "God of Cargoes"; Fjolnir, "Much-Knowing"; Fjolsvid, "Very Wise One"; Grani, "Horsehair"; Grim and Grimnir, "Masked One"; Hangagud, "God of the Hanged"; Haptagud, "God of the Gods"; Har, "High One"; Harbard, "Greybearded One"; Helblindi, "One Who Blinds with Death"; Herjan, "Raider"; Herteit, "Glad of War"; Hjalmberi, "Helmeted One"; Hnikar and Hnikud, "Spear Thruster"; Jafhnar, "Just as High"; Jalk, "Gelding"; Omi, "One Whose Speech Resounds"; Oski, "Fulfiller of Desire"; Sanngetal, "One Who Guesses Correctly"; Sidhott, "Deep-Hooded One"; Sidskegg, "Long-Bearded One"; Sigfod, "Father of Battle"; Svipall, "Changeable One"; Thekk, "Pleasant One"; Thirdi, "Third"; Thund, "Thin One"; Vak, "Alert One"; Veratyr, "God of Men"; Vidrir, "Ruler of Weather"; and Ygg, "Terrible One".[8]

Abilities[edit | edit source]

Odin has mastered arcane magic. He can communicate telepathically at a distance of hundreds of miles, and inspire berserk rage in a thousand men at once.[2]

Odin cannot raise men from the dead, though other gods have that power. Healing forces him into a long sleep, during which Loki takes the opportunity to cause mischief.[2]

Odin can control the Bifrost bridge to connect Asgard to any world of the material plane. The only other deity known to have this power over Bifrost is Heimdall.Manual of the Planes (1e) (1987), p.95

Portfolio[edit | edit source]

Odin is a god of knowledge, magic, travel, trickery, and war. He is also called a god of poetry and inspiration.[2]

Worship[edit | edit source]

Dogma[edit | edit source]

The cult of Odin seek to emulate their deity in the acquisition of knowledge, wisdom and cunning. Odin teaches his followers to make use of their intelligence to appreciate the world, but not to become cold to humanity in the pursuit of knowledge.[3]

Although Odin rejoices at battle between the strong, he forbids oppression of the poor and defenceless. Odin pledges to crush without mercy all those who do so.[9] It also forbidden for a visitor to harm his host, to desecrate a sacred standing stone, or pillage a shrine.[10]

Odin's cult believes in self-reliance. One should not rely on the favor of Odin or take the gods' assistance for granted, for the Father of Victory is known to switch sides unexpectedly in battle. Odin's followers will, likewise, switch loyalties quickly if their ruler is foolish or weak.

Losing an eye in battle is believed to be a symbol of Odin's favor. Intentionally putting out one's own eye to emulate Odin is strongly discouraged by the cult, who consider it foolish and vain. The fanatic Thorgest One-eyed performed such an act.

Followers of Odin consider runic standing stones to be sacred to Odin.[11]

His clerics believe that all other gods of the Norse pantheon are subservient to Odin, although in reality is power is not absolute; if Odin fell, another powerful deity such as Tyr, Thor or Loki would readily take his place.[12]

Worshipers[edit | edit source]

Odin is worshiped primarily among the humans of the world of Midgard, a realm which he himself created from the flesh of his progenitor Ymir. He is popular in numerous other realms, including the Known World, Hollow World, and Earth,[3] though he is not well known on Toril.[13] He has followers among the many worlds connected to the Great Wheel.

He is particularly followed by those who seek knowledge, and heroes who seek to enter Odin's hall Valhalla in the afterlife. His followers especially include gnomes, bards, fighters, rogues, sorcerers and wizards.

Notable followers[edit | edit source]

Notable followers of Odin include:

Clergy[edit | edit source]

The clergy of Odin emulate their deity by wearing dark, wide-brimmed hats decorated or made from raven feathers. They wear patches over their left eyes.

Odin's priesthood are valued as counselors to powerful nobles. They serve primarily as diplomats and advisors.[16]

Chieftains number among Odin's priesthood. They are expected to fight bravely in the front lines of battle, and to be wise leaders and excellent tacticians.[2]

Rituals[edit | edit source]

The cult of Odin practices ritual hanging and piercing by spears in emulation of their god. These painful rituals are used to test the faithful, and are not intended to be lethal.

In one such ritual performed by clerics of Odin, a noose is placed around the supplicant's neck, where they are buried in a coffin in a sacred bog for nine nights. The cleric is fed a poison which induces paralysis for the duration. The ritual is dangerous, and in some cases can cause death or madness. The ritual is hoped to grant the cleric knowledge of one of the twenty-four sacred runes of Odin.[11]

The cult of Odin often sacrifice animals in the hopes of receiving victory in battle, or making a successful voyage. Some followers practice human sacrifice, in which the victim is hanged, stabbed through the heart with a spear, and the remains burned on an oaken pyre.[17]

Orders[edit | edit source]

A group of clerics known as Odin's Ravens are tasked with assisting local rulers in the judgement of criminal charges. They use magic to detect lies on both the accused and on witnesses.[18][19]

Holy sites[edit | edit source]

Temples[edit | edit source]

Temples to Odin are long, fortified halls which serve as feasting and brawling. The temple's roof is traditionally supported by oaken pillars carved with images of gods and heroes. Sacrifices of gold and silver are made to Odin each lunar month.[17]

Visitors are generously offered a meal and a tankard of meal, with free accomodation offered to those who work to advance the craft of magic. Many temples also contain a store of knowledge and magic items, which the priests of Odin are happy to trade in.

Odin has a temple upon the distant Rock of Bral, a trade hub within the realm of Wildspace.[20] He has a small temple in the planar town of Glorium, whose priests spend much of their time in prayer.[21]

Shrines[edit | edit source]

Communities often have a shrine to Odin, called the Place of Judgement. Here, priests of Odin use magic to determine the truth when a man is accused of a crime. Runes are often engraved on this shrine to prevent violence during the trial.[18] Judges often award punishments of weregild, or fines paid to a victim or their family in lieu of blood vengeance.[9]

Many smaller shrines to Odin appear in the wilderness, often in locations that overlook the surrounding terrain.

Holy symbol[edit | edit source]

Odin's holy symbol is a watchful blue eye.[1]

In some worlds, Odin is represented by the head of a man with a raven on each shoulder.[3]

Favored weapon[edit | edit source]

Odin favors the shortspear.

Relationships[edit | edit source]

Family[edit | edit source]

By blood or marriage, Odin has strong family ties to many of the gods of the Norse pantheon and several human heroes of legend.

Odin and his brothers Vili and Ve were the first of the Aesir gods of the Norse pantheon, and all Aesir descend from these three.[17] He is blood brother to the Norse deity Loki.[22]

Odin is married to the goddess Frigga, although he has had several wives, and several sons by different mothers.

With Frigga he fathered Tyr, Balder and Hod. With the giantess Jord he fathered Thor. With Gunlod he fathered Bragi.[23] He is also father of Heimdall, Vidar, Vali, Hermod, and Meile.[24]

He is grandfather to Baldur's son Forseti and Thor's sons Modi, Magni and Uller.

As blood brother to Loki he is technically uncle to the world-serpent Jormungandr, Hel, Garmr, and his own horse Sleipnir.

Odin is grandfather to King Rerir of Hunaland. He is therefore an ancestor to Rerir's son Volsung, Volsung's son Sigmund (who Odin slew in battle), and Sigmund's son Sigurd.[25]

Odin is grandfather to Svafrlami, for whom the dwarves crafted the sword Tyrfing.[26] He is therefore an ancestor to Svafrlami's daughter Eyfura, her son Angantyr, his daughter Hervor, and her sons Angantyr and Heidrek.

Enemies[edit | edit source]

Odin has made many enemies through the ages.

The frost giants hold a grudge against Odin for slaying almost all of their species, including the progenitor giant Ymir.

Odin is fated to be slain at Ragnarok by the wolf Fenrir, son of Loki. Loki will side with the fire giants against Asgard, holding a grudge against Odin for imprisoning him within a cave for an age as punishment for his part in the killing of Balder.

Odin has enmity with the goddess Hel, who rules the land of the dead. She is jealous of Odin's love of life, and angry that Odin has reincarnated the spirits of the worthy as the children of nobles and rulers.[3]

Odin shackled the titan Jeuron to the bottom of the sea for posing as a deity.[27]

Allies[edit | edit source]

Odin is chief of the gods of Asgard, and nearly all of them shall side with him at the battle at Ragnarok.

Odin's son Vidar is fated to avenge him at Ragnarok.

Minions[edit | edit source]

Avatars and proxies[edit | edit source]

Odin prefers to travel Midgard in person, under disguises and many names.

It is speculated that the Norse sun god Odur is an aspect of Odin.

The deity Woden of the Anglo-Saxon pantheon is also speculated to be an earlier aspect of Odin.[28]

Creatures[edit | edit source]

Odin is responsible for the creation of the human race, creating the first man Ask, whose name means "ash tree", and the first woman Embla, whose name means "elm". Odin gave the humans breath; his brother Vili gave them consciousness, and Ve gave them form.[1]

Odin rides an eight-legged legendary horse named Sleipnir. It is the offspring of the god Loki, who assumed once the form of a mare.

Odin is served by two legendary ravens: Hugin, whose name means "Thought"; and Munin, "Memory", who search the world each day collecting information for Odin. He has also two wolves, Freke and Gere.

The valkyries bring fallen heroes to Odin's domain at Asgard, but do not follow Odin exclusively.

Artifacts[edit | edit source]

His personal weapon, Gungnir, is a powerful spear from which he once hung himself from the World Tree Yggdrasil in exchange for the knowledge of magic. It is a deadly weapon which can be thrown at great distance and always returns to his hand.[1] All enemies who see it are struck with fear, and allies who Odin allows to touch it is blessed in battle.[2]

Odin carries a rune wand. It has the powers of the rod of rulership, can summon elementals, store spells, and kill any mortal. It drains the life force of anyone but Odin who touches it.[2]

He wears Draupnir, a magical gold ring forged by the dwarves, and said to be worth as much as one million gold pieces. It splits into nine equal rings every nine nights, each worth at least 3,000 gp.[2]

Hlidskjalf, Odin's High Seat in Asgard, allows Odin to scry any place in the world regardless of distance.

Odin has the power to create magic items, which he often gives as rewards to worthy heroes. He had the dwarves of Asgard craft the legendary sword Gram, called also Odin's sword or the sword of Odin, which was wielded by Sigurd Fafnirsbane.[25][29]

He is also associated with Odin's bow,[30] the sword Fist of Odin,[31]

Realm[edit | edit source]

Norse cosmology[edit | edit source]

Odin rules over the halls of Valhalla and Valasjkalf in the plane of Asgard.

Valhalla is a grand hall, with five hundred and forty doors, each wide enough for eight hundred men to pass at a time.[32]

Valaskjalf, a place whose name means "Shelf of the Slain", is the hall where Odin holds his High Seat. The artifact throne Hlidskjalf here allows Odin to see any place in the entire world.

History[edit | edit source]

Origin[edit | edit source]

Odin was one of the first gods to be born, in a time before the earth itself existed. He is descended from the frost giant Ymir, who was the first being to coalesce out of the mists, and Buri, a man dug from the primordial ice by the cow Audhumla. Buri produced offspring with giants, and from their line came Odin and his brothers Vili and Ve.

Creation of the world[edit | edit source]

Odin and his brothers Vili and Ve, first of the Aesir gods, slew their progenitor Ymir and created the world of Midgard from his flesh, the sky from Ymir's skull, and the clouds from his brains. So much blood was spilled that all but one of the frost giants drowned, Bergelmir, progenitor of all other frost giants.

Odin, Vili and Ve created the first pair of humans, named Ask and Embla, giving them form and consciousness. Odin breathed life into their bodies, and these were the ancestors of all humans.

Ancient history[edit | edit source]

Odin and the Aesir gods, who had become many in number, took up residence in the plane of Asgard, building great halls from which they ruled. The Aesir came into conflict with the Vanir, a rival faction of fertility deities. The war was long and drawn-out, and the two sides tired of it and desired peace.

To secure the peace treaty, the two sides traded hostages, as was the tradition. The Vanir sent Njord and his children Frey and Freya to live with the Aesir, and in exchange the Vanir received Mimir, the wisest of the Aesir, and Honir, who the Aesir promised to be the strongest leader, but who in reality was much weaker than promised.

When the Vanir realized they had been deceived, they slew Mimir and sent his head back to the Aesir. Odin placed Mimir's head in the well beneath Midgard into which the tree Yggdrasil grows one of its three roots, and thereafter that well became known as a source of wisdom. The Vanir remained at peace with the Aesir, and the two familes intermarried.

Odin would later sacrifice an eye to the well of Mimir in exchange for the power of wisdom. In another instance he hung himself from the tree Yggdrasil by his spear for nine days in order to learn the secrets of magical runes. His dedication and suffering impressed the son of the giant Bolthor, who taught Odin nine magical songs and eighteen new magical spells.[33]

Odin's self-sacrifice and the eighteen spells he learned appear at the end of the poem Havamal. Among his abilities are to blunt an enemy's weapons, to stop a spear in flight, to extinguish fire, and to speak with the dead.

Recent history[edit | edit source]

Odin spends much time watching conflicts between men, lending his aid to one side or another and ensuring that the greatest heroes join his army of the brave at Valhalla. For example, Odin granted the sword Gram to the hero Sigmund, only to later slay that hero personally in battle.

Odin and Loki once made their way to the world of Nehwon, where they attempted to play the Mingols and Rime Islanders against each other to ensure mutual annihilation.[34]

Prophecy[edit | edit source]

Odin is destined to die at the battle of Ragnarok, killed by the wolf Fenrir, son of Loki, who will side with the fire giants against Odin. Odin's sons Vali and Vidar will survive the battle.

Publication history[edit | edit source]

Chainmail[edit | edit source]

Odin's spear is referenced in the 1971 Chainmail miniature game under magical weapons.

Original D&D[edit | edit source]

Odin is first mentioned in Greyhawk (Supplement 1) (1975), where he is listed as an "ultra-powerful being" who can be summoned by a gate spell.

However, game statistics for Odin and the Norse pantheon did not appear until Gods, Demi-Gods & Heroes (1976). In its opening editorial, editor Tim Kask writes:

"This volume is something else, also: our last attempt to reach the "Monty Hall" DMs. Perhaps some of the 'giveaway' campaigns will look as foolish as they truly are. This is our last attempt to delineate the absurdity of 40+ level characters. When Odin, the All-Father has only(?) 300 hit points, who can take a 44th-level Lord seriously?"

Basic D&D[edit | edit source]

Odin appears as an Immortal in the Mystara campaign setting within the D&D Known World.

Odin and his priesthood are described in GAZ7 The Northern Reaches (1988), where Odin is a major deity. Odin's worship in the Heldannic Territories and Northern Reaches is described in Joshuan's Almanac & Book of Facts (1995). He and the Norse gods also appear in the Hollow World Campaign Set (1990) and Karameikos: Kingdom of Adventure (1994).

Passing mention is made to him in the Master Rules (BECMI) (1985) DM's Book, p.63, where he is is named in connection to the apples of Bragi and the ring Draupnir. Odin's priesthood are also briefly mentioned in GAZ12 The Golden Khan of Ethengar (1989) and Allston's Rules Cyclopedia (1991).

Odin is depicted in Allston's Wrath of the Immortals (1992) p.29-30, where he is Lawful-aligned immortal of the rank of Hierarch. He does not recall a time when he was ever mortal, and is worshiped under different names in various worlds.

AD&D 1st edition[edit | edit source]

Odin and the Norse pantheon are primarily detailed in the sourcebooks Legends & Lore (1e) (1985) and Deities & Demigods (1e) (1980).

Odin makes numerous appearances in Dragon Magazine, and is referenced in no fewer than 72 issues of the print magazine. The most notable articles during the AD&D 1e era were Origins of the Norse Pantheon, Dragon #29 (Sep 1979); Giants in the Earth, Dragon #41 (Sep 1980); Giants in the Earth, Dragon #42 (Oct 1980); Runes, Dragon #69 (Jan 1983); Valkyrie Settlement, Dragon #85 (May 1984); Plane facts on Gladsheim, Dragon #90 (Oct 1984); and Lords & Legends, Dragon #127 (Nov 1987).

AD&D 2nd edition[edit | edit source]

Odin reprises his appearance among the Norse pantheon in Legends & Lore (2e) (1990). Additionally, he appears in several of the campaign settings released by TSR during the post-Gygax period.

Odin appears as a deity in the Red Steel (1994) campaign setting and the Savage Coast Campaign Book (1996) Campaign Book. Followers of Odin appear in the Spelljammer sourcebooks The Legend of Spelljammer (1991), SJA2 Skull & Crossbows (1990), and SJR5 Rock of Bral (1992). A human world where Odin is worshipped is detailed in the HR1 Vikings Campaign Sourcebook (1991). Odin and Loki make a cameo in Fritz Leiber's Lankhmar: The New Adventures of Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser{{UnknownBook}}.

He makes several appearances in the Planescape setting, including the Planescape Campaign Setting (1994) boxed set, In the Cage: A Guide to Sigil (1995), The Factol's Manifesto (1995), and Hellbound: The Blood War (1996).

Odin also appears in passing in several sourcebooks. His conflict with the titan Jeuron is mentioned in the Monstrous Manual (1993). He is used in Player's Option: Skills & Powers (1995), p.57 as an example of a deity whose clerics may be allowed the use of a spear. The World Builder's Guidebook (1996) uses Odin as an example of interactions between pantheons.

Odin "All Father" appeared in the 1991 TSR Trading Cards set as card #225. Magic items associated with Odin appear the Encyclopedia Magica series, volumes 1, 2 and 4.

Odin also makes several appearances in Dragon magazine, most notably on the cover of Dragon #153. The most important Dragon articles referencing Odin in this era are The Goals of the Gods, Dragon #153 (Jan 1990); Thor Goes Fishing, Dragon #168 (Apr 1991); and The Only Good Orc, Dragon #196 (Aug 1993).

D&D 3rd edition[edit | edit source]

The primary source for Odin in D&D 3rd edition is Deities and Demigods (3e) (2002), p.167-169, the most valuable source on the Norse pantheon on the in D&D canon.

Odin is referenced in Dragon Compendium Volume 1 (2005), p.155-160, which reprints the article Runes from Dragon #69 (Jan 1983).

D&D 4th edition[edit | edit source]

Odin makes no appearance in this edition of the game.

D&D 5th edition[edit | edit source]

Odin is mentioned as a member of the Norse pantheon in the Player's Handbook (5e) (2014) and Dungeon Master's Guide (5e) (2014).

Creative origins[edit | edit source]

Odin, also written Óðinn, is a major deity appearing in the Scandinavian mythic cycle. His name is believed to mean "the Mad One". He is generally accepted as the head of the Norse pantheon of gods, although that position is also speculated to belong to the god Tyr.

The primary sources on Norse myth featuring Odin are the Poetic Edda, a collection of Norse skaldic myth thought to date to the Viking age around the year 700 AD; and the Prose Edda, a much later record written around 1200 AD after the Christianization of Iceland.

According to the Prose Edda, Odin and his brothers are the sons of Bor and his wife Bestla. Bor is the son of Buri, while Bestla is the daughter of the giant Bolthorn. In the poem Havamal stanza 140, Odin boasts that he learned nine spells from an unnamed son of Bolthorn. Some scholars speculate that this unnamed son is the giant Mimir, although this would be logically inconsistent with the story that Bergelmir was the only giant to survive the slaying of Ymir.

Norse specialist Dr Jackson Crawford has produced numerous Youtube videos on Odin, including The God Óðinn (Odin) (2018).

Reception and influence[edit | edit source]

Odin's original depiction in Norse myth as an old bearded man with a staff and a wide-brimmed hat is believed to have influenced the character Gandalf from Tolkien's Lord of the Rings, which was influential on Dungeons & Dragons and the popular depictions of wizards in fantasy art and literature.

Known as Woden or Wotan by the Anglo-Saxon peoples of England, Odin is the namesake of the weekday Wednesday in the English language. The tradition of naming weekdays for deities is believed to have come from the Romans, who equated Odin with the god Mercury, for whom the day is still named in some languages such as the French, Mercredi.

Odin has been widely used as an example of one of the most powerful beings in D&D. In Dragon #204 (Apr 1994), a reader wrote in to claim that his party had killed Elminster of Shadowdale. Jeff Grubb, author of Manual of the Planes (1e) (1987), respondedf:

"Uh-oh, it looks like Elminster is toying with your characters. This happens every now and again with important personages of various worlds. Someone writes in and says, "Sorry, we killed Odin, so you can stop printing his statistics," and by the time we arrive on the scene, there's Odin himself, roasting the PCs on a spit. It's a scene we've seen here at TSR all too often."

In They deserved it, Dragon #228 (Apr 1996), p.16, Roger Moore quotes a PC's famous last words:

"Well, forget you, I'm attacking. What's Odin's armor class?"

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Deities and Demigods (3e) (2002), p.167-169.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Legends & Lore (2e) (1990), p.175.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Wrath of the Immortals (1992), p.29-30.
  4. Legends & Lore (1e) (1985), p.104.
  5. Manual of the Planes (1e) (1987), p.91.
  6. Manual of the Planes (1e) (1987), p.95.
  7. Player's Handbook (5e) (2014), p.299.
  8. HR1 Vikings Campaign Sourcebook (1991), p.86.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Joshuan's Almanac & Book of Facts (1995), p.47.
  10. Joshuan's Almanac & Book of Facts (1995), p.80-81.
  11. 11.0 11.1 GAZ7 The Northern Reaches, Player's Book (1988), p.28.
  12. Players Handbook (1e) (1978), p.95.
  13. Spelljammer: AD&D Adventures in Space, Concordance of Arcane Space (1989), p.18.
  14. Joshuan's Almanac & Book of Facts (1995), p.150.
  15. The Legend of Spelljammer (1991), p.71.
  16. GAZ7 The Northern Reaches, Player's Book (1988), p.15.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Legends & Lore (1e) (1985), p.98-99.
  18. 18.0 18.1 GAZ7 The Northern Reaches, Player's Book (1988), p.7.
  19. GAZ7 The Northern Reaches, Player's Book (1988), p.25.
  20. SJR5 Rock of Bral (1992), p.71.
  21. A Player's Primer to the Outlands (1995), p.18.
  22. Legends & Lore (1e) (1985), p.105.
  23. Legends & Lore (2e) (1990), p.179-181.
  24. Gods, Demi-Gods & Heroes (1976), p.32.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Giants in the Earth, Dragon #41 (Sep 1980), p.16-19.
  26. Giants in the Earth, Dragon #42 (Oct 1980), p.35.
  27. Monstrous Manual (1993), p.344.
  28. Heart & Sword: Deities of the Dark Ages, Dragon #263 (Sep 1999), p.28-43.
  29. Encyclopedia Magica Volume Four (1995), p.1386.
  30. Encyclopedia Magica Volume One (1994), p.209.
  31. Encyclopedia Magica Volume Four (1995), p.1368.
  32. In D&D third edition terms, this must mean that each door is 4,000 feet wide, with the width of the doors alone giving the building a minimum circumference of 2,160,000 feet or over 409 miles. This could give it an area of over 16 by 25 miles, making it larger than most cities.
  33. Deities and Demigods (3e) (2002), p.167.
  34. Lankhmar: City of Adventure (1e) (1985), p.12.
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